hey, I need write a full lab report of steam distillation of orange I will attach two files of the requirements and the lab too
Example Laboratory Report Format
(2-sided preferred and no separate title page needed!)
Title of Experiment with numerotation_____________________________________________
Lab Section:___e.g. Tuesday 11:30 – 2:00________________________________________
This should be few sentences including the 6 points listed in prelab study on your notebook
such as name of major reactants & products, type of reaction (addition, SN1…), technique of
reaction, type of experiment (reflux, addition at low temperature,…), technique to isolate/purify
the product (recrystallization, distillation,…), techniques to identify the products (density, UV,
Example exp 8.1.
The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the reaction and stereochemical nature of the
products of the addition of bromine to trans-cinnamic acid using an addition and reflux
apparatus. The dibromo products of addition are isolated by filtration and can exist as racemic
mixtures of2R,3R/2S,3S “±Erythro” and/or 2R,3S/2S,3R “±Threo” diastereomers, which
exhibit significantly different melting points. The reaction mechanism and the stereochemical
nature of the products were evaluated using a melting point measurement and was derived from
the resultant stereochemical nature of the products.
A summary of the experimental procedure used in the lab including modifications from the
book. This is to be in your own words, not copied from the laboratory manual. Do not include
laboratory observations in the procedure section. This section is typically written in the past
tense third person passive voice. Do not write outlines, numbered lists, or bulleted lists.
This section must be written in proper paragraph form with complete sentences.
This section will contain important information for calculation and discussion (empty flasks
masses not needed). You must provide organized tables of your own design Column/row
names including observations (color, phase changes…) and data involved (molar quantities,
masses and volumes of reagents, yields of crude and pure products). Annotate if the data is
from the literature, calculated or experimental. Don’t repeat same data in different tables.
All calculations should be shown out of the tables. One example of each calculation should
be provided. Percent yields must be calculated where appropriate. Any figure, chart and
spectra should be included in this section with legend and title.
Chemical reaction equation and mechanism involved in the experiment should be drawn in
this section † . This section should be written in paragraph form and must account for the
observations and data you obtained from the experiment. You should summarize your results
and relate them to the chemistry that you know. Each lab background section contains concepts
to consider as you write this section. Reports which do not contain a discussion of the
important chemical concepts of the experiment will have points deducted.This section
should also answer any questions found in the lab procedure.
Comment on your observations and results. This section of the lab report describes what you
have learned in the experiment. Use this section of the lab report to discuss the purpose of the
experiment, any sources of errors that you encountered, the reliability of the data, additional
investigations that you might suggest, and the relationship between your discoveries and
chemical principles, theories, and concepts. If your experiment included the determination of
some value which can be compared to a known actual value, write a conclusion about the
accuracy of your results. Use the conclusion section to provide additional supporting
information to the lab report.
For a FREE software package for drawing chemical reactions visit www.acdlabs.com and look for ChemSketch.
EXPERIMENT 17.2 STEAM DISTILLATION
Isolation of Natural Flavors and Fragrances
OF ORANGE OIL
Ether is highly flammable; avoid exposure to heat or flames. If the orange from which
the peel is taken is to be eaten, it must be done outside the lab.
Cut or tear one orange peel into pieces less than 1 cm on a side, so that they can be
removed from the round-bottomed flask after the experiment. Be aware that they will
swell during the heating. Place these pieces in a 250-ml round-bottomed flask with
100 mL of water. Set up for simple distillation by adding a Claisen head, thermometer
with adapter, and condenser, plus a collection container (a beaker or round-bottomed
flask with a bent adapter) as well as a heating mantle and variable transformer. Distill
and collect 30–50 mL of distillate. Swirl the collection flask and observe the droplets
of limonene on the surface of the water. Smell the product and describe the odor. Place
the distillate in a separatory funnel. Rinse the collection flask with a 20-mL portion of
ether and add this to the separatory funnel. Shake and vent, then remove the aqueous
phase and dry the ether extract over Na2SO4, decant into a beaker, add a boiling chip,
and remove the ether on a steam bath in the hood. Note the odor and record the mass
of the product (0.2-0.5 g). Combine your product with that of several others and take
an IR spectrum and refractive index. Dispose of the orange rind in a trashcan; do not
put it in the sink because it may clog the drain.
1. Interpret the most important peaks in the IR spectrum you obtained.
2. How well does your IR spectrum match the literature spectrum in Figure 17–6? Explain any
22 23 24 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8 2,9
15 16 17 18 19
21 23 25
moZE DO PP
A 100 4200 4000 3800 3600 3400 3200 3000 2800 2600 2400 2200
Figure 17-6 Infrared Spectrum of Limonene
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