Post- Charlene

 Respond to your  colleagues by providing one alternative therapeutic approach. Explain  why you suggest this alternative and support your suggestion with  evidence-based literature and/or your own experiences with clients. 

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Discussion: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  is known as a mental health condition or a psychiatric disorder that  occurs in people who witnessed or experienced a traumatic event in which  physical harm occurred or was threatened (Bisson, Cosgrove, Lewis,  & Roberts, 2015). According to Lancaster et al. (2016), PTSD creates  long-lasting consequences of traumatic ordeals that creates intense  fear, feeling of guilt, helplessness, persistent sadness due to sudden  death of loved one, natural disaster, major accident, war or combat,  physical assault, rape, terrorist attacks. According to Pai et al.  (2017), DSM-5 diagnostic criteria related to PSTD includes flashbacks of  the trauma, nightmares, intense distress, panicking, lack of sleep or  self-disturbance, self-destructive behavior, aggressive behavior, reduce  interest, avoidance or avoiding distress memories, emotionally numb and  increase the use of alcohol and drugs. In the case study of Thomson  Family, William Thompson is a 38 years old African American who is the  younger brother of henry. William is a military person and was involved  in an Iraq war veteran who recently starts living with her brother in  Pasadena, California (Laureate Education, 2012a). Both his brother and  wife argue that William is suffering from PTSD but William does not  accept this thing and show the symptoms of avoidance when someone tries  to talk to him about that. William starts living with his brother when  he was unable to pay his mortgage and now working on jeopardy due to his  PTSD and alcoholic concerns. The behavior of William that aligns with  the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of PTSD includes avoidance, war veteran,  alcoholic concerns, concentration issues on working due to which he was  unable to pay the mortgage due to joblessness, working in jeopardy due  to PTSD concerns and his brother also admits that William is suffering  from PTSD.
Psychotropic MedicatioSelective serotonin reuptake  inhibitors (SSRIs) are the only FDA-approved drugs that are used in the  treatment of PTSD (Ipser & Stein, 2012). In PTSD treatment  sertraline antidepressants such as Zoloft, Pfizer and Paroxetine  antidepressant HCl such as Paxil are recommended in the medication  process. SSRIs work by helping to create a balance between certain  chemicals such as neurotransmitter serotonin levels in the  brain (Feduccia, et al., 2019). This chemical balance in the brain helps  in regulating mood, improving sleep disturbance, improving appetite and  decreasing other symptoms. According to Alexander (2012), the  first-line treatment method for PTSD includes the use of Fluoxetine  (Prozac) which helps in improving the energy level, restoring daily  interest, decrease fear, unwanted thought, improve concentration and  reduce panic attacks.

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In the case of PTSD along with  first-line treatment process different therapeutic approaches are also  adopted for the patient which includes the use of cognitive-behavioral  therapy (CBT). According to Paintain and Cassidy (2018), CBT is  considered the most effective type of psychotherapy and first-line  therapy which is used in both short term and long term treatment of  PTSD. The main focus of CBT therapy is the traumatic event that are  creating problems in the behavior of the patient. CBT helps in  identifying, determine, understanding and focuses upon changing the  thinking pattern and behavioral pattern of individuals involved in the  treatment process (Watkins, Sprang, & Rothbaum, 2018).
Expected Outcomes
With the help of the recommended  medication process and therapies, it becomes easy for the patient to  overcome the symptoms of PTSD. The expected outcomes from the  recommended therapy are to return a sense of control in patients along  with self-confidence, reduce symptoms of escaping and avoidance  behavior (Syros, 2017). CBT will target current problems and symptoms of  the patient and focuses on changing pattern behaviors, feelings,  thoughts that are creating difficulties in functioning (Shubina, 2015). 

References
Alexander, W.  (2012). Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in combat  veterans: Focus on antidepressants and atypical antipsychotic agents. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 37(1), 32-38. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278188/
Bisson, J. I., Cosgrove, S., Lewis, C., & Roberts, N. P. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder. British Medical Journal, 1(2), 351-366. doi:10.1136/bmj.h6161
Feduccia, A. A.,  Jerome, L., Klosinski, B., Emerson, A., Mithoefer, M. C., & Doblin,  R. (2019). Breakthrough for trauma treatment: Safety and efficacy of  MDMA-Assisted psychotherapy compared to paroxetine and sertraline. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10(1), 650-678. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00650/full
Ipser, J. C., & Stein, D. J. (2012). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 15(6), 825-840. doi:10.1017/S1461145711001209
Lancaster, C. L.,  Teeters, J. B., Gros, D. F., & Back, S. E. (2016). Posttraumatic  stress disorder: Overview of evidence-based assessment and treatment. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(11), 105-110. doi:10.3390/jcm5110105
Laureate Education. (2012a). Academic year in residence: Thompson family case study . Baltimore, MD: Author .
Pai, A., Suris, A.  M., & North, C. S. (2017). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the  DSM-5: controversy, change, and conceptual considerations. Behavioral Sciences, 7(1), 7-21. doi:10.3390/bs7010007
Paintain, E., & Cassidy, S. (2018). First‐line therapy for post‐traumatic stress disorder: A systematic review of cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic approaches. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 18(3), 237-250. doi:10.1002/capr.12174
Shubina, I. (2015). Cognitive-behavioral therapy of patients with ptsd: literature review. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 165(1), 208-216. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.624
Syros, I. (2017). Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(4), 1-14. doi:10.1080/20008198.2017.1351219
Watkins, L. E.,  Sprang, K. R., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2018). Treating PTSD: A review of  evidence-based psychotherapy interventions. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12(1), 258-277. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00258

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