Respond to Nichole and Nicholas discuss whether you agree or disagree with their statements. Do you have a different insight than the one they provided? If so, explain what you see as different and why. Use examples to justify your answer.
According to Welsch, Vivanco and Fuentes, a totem is certain revered emblems, usually animals, plants, places, and geographic or meteorological features. The first thing that pops into my mind is the American Flag. In today’s society it is under fire and the ideology and beliefs behind it are a bit murky. But, for hundreds of years, the flag has been a sign of pride in ones heritage. And this goes for flags all over the world. Whether it is a countries flag, a state’s flag or even a clan’s flag, they are signs of pride in heritage, of where they come from and a hope for where they are going. And the interesting part to me, is how each person’s view on WHY is different. Their buddy serving overseas came home under that flag, they served their country to protect that flag, they escaped another country and that flag was their sanctuary, they moved here for the opportunities that flag gave them, their family has lived here for generations and they are proud of where they came from. It marks a sense of pride, but the why is all different, but that pride, that heritage, that flag, is what brings us all together and gives us something great in common. In my opinion, totems bring people together.
Totems are “certain revered emblems, usually animals, plants, places, and geographic or meteorological features”. The symbol of the 101st Airborne infantry division the “Screaming Eagles” would be considered a totem. It functions by acting as a mascot and a proud symbol of a much-respected unit in the United States Army.
When an anthropologist talks about magic they are talking about “an explanatory system of causation that does not follow naturalistic explanations”. One example of magic in the United States that comes to mind is the idea of bad luck. The idea that a black cat or walking under a ladder will ensure that bad luck will ruin your day or come and go for the next 7 years. Magic in non-Western societies is explained as “working at a distance without direct physical contact”. This reminds me more of how Catholicism asks God for certain things and proclaims them as “miracles”. Someone says a prayer and through likely an explainable occurrence they proclaim that God has interfered with the natural order and made the person better. Although it is Western it is similar to non-western magic in the same sense that it is an explanation to something that is likely not understood.
According to the text, the key features of a ritual are that they are repetitive and stylized. One of the rituals in the Catholic Church that comes to mind is Transubstantiation. This is when the priest blesses the bread and the wine in a certain way. Catholics believe that when the priest does this the bread and wine literally become the body and blood of Christ. This definitely meets the definition to me. It is performed in a certain way by every priest in Catholicism and is done at every mass.
Reflecting on what you have read and learned about politics in this module, do you feel that the world will ever be politically unified? Why or why not? What are some of the consequences of politics on modern-day life and on your life? Be sure to use examples to justify your answer.
You should discuss whether Hannah and Qima have met the requirements of the paper, ask any questions that you have about their proposal, and provide advice on ways that they can improve the clarity of the methodology or better communicate results.
I am researching for this project is the use of music therapy in the development of emotional intelligence (EI) in young adolescents. Researchers have been increasingly looking into the connection between emotional well-being in adolescents and music over the past two decades. This has resulted in a large body of evidence indicating musical intervention can be beneficial to emotional, psychosocial, and cognitive development in adolescents (Blasco-Magraner et al., 2021; Dingle, Hodges, & Kunde, 2016; Gooding, 2011; Nikmanesh, 2012; Porter et al., 2016). A majority of these studies focus only on a few aspects of emotional intelligence (EI), and there is little research looking into the connection between music and EI in broad terms. Emotions influence learning, memory, and problem-solving abilities, implying that higher EI can benefit not only behavioral and psychosocial functioning but cognitive as well. Interventions that target multiple aspects of EI may be beneficial to adolescents with behavioral and/or cognitive deficits. A population that often struggles with these types of deficits is youth from low-income communities (Dashiff et al., 2009), but there is a lack of research into the benefits of music therapy in these neighborhoods. There is a need for research into interventions that are both easily implemented and provide beneficial outcomes in multiple areas.
Research pertaining to the effects of music on emotional development in children and young adolescents over the past 20 years was recently reviewed by researchers Blasco-Magraner et al. (2021). These studies were all specifically empirical studies that focused on children ranging from 3 to 12 years old and focused on one or more of the four areas: emotional intelligence, emotional regulation, educational and formative benefits, and socio-emotional benefits. The studies reviewed examined a myriad of music applications such as training, listening, and therapy. The overall conclusion was that music in education can have a positive effect on the emotional development of children and adolescents (Blasco-Magraner et al., 2021). Only a handful of the studies examined look specifically at emotional intelligence, but the review provides ample discussion for where further research can be done.
A study conducted in Iran found that students who received music therapy intervention for 45 minutes over the span of 20 days saw a significant increase in EI (Nikmanesh, 2012). This study focused specifically on young adolescents between the age of 10 and 12 with low EI scores on the BarOn EQ-i youth version. Their experiment had a large sample size (n=100) that was equally divided between boys and girls. A few major limitations of this research are that the participants selected were only those with the lowest EI scores and any that were not showing sufficient improvements during therapy received more direct intervention from researchers (Nikmanesh, 2012). The researchers were also aware of what specific EI areas the participants struggled with and tailored the intervention to their specific needs. This seriously limits the applications of their findings and may have skewed the results to appear more favorable.
Research by Dingle, Hodges, and Kunde (2016) examined the efficacy of the Tuned In music therapy program when modified for application in a large group setting. The study was conducted over the course of two days at a large metropolitan girl’s secondary school in Australia. The participants (n=261) were 12 to 15 years old. Researchers found that there were significant gains in levels of emotional awareness and emotional regulation post-intervention (Dingle, Hodges, and Kunde 2016). This research supports the idea that music therapy can be beneficial even in large group settings and with limited time. This research is limited by the fact that it was conducted in an all-girls school.
Doctor Lori Gooding (2011) examined the effects of music therapy intervention on three separate groups with common social deficits. All three of these experiments found that music therapy intervention is an effective tool in improving children’s social competence. There were significant gains in social functioning and social competence for some groups, supporting the belief that music therapy intervention can increase psychosocial functioning, an aspect of emotional intelligence.
In my study, I will be testing three hypotheses: (1) music therapy increases emotional intelligence in adolescents, (2) the level of emotional intelligence pre-intervention will impact overall improvement, (3) improvement remains after the intervention has ceased
The reason I am asking these three questions is because the literature has either mixed findings or there is little to no current research examining them. Most of the literature supports the idea that those with lower EI benefit from music therapy intervention (Blasco-Magraner et al., 2021; Nikmanesh, 2012; Gooding, 2011). There is currently little support showing that those with already high levels of EI benefit from intervention though. In some of the studies reviewed by Blasco-Magraner et al. (2021) participants with high levels of EI and emotional regulation pre-intervention saw little to no gains post-intervention. I have also not found any evidence that there have been any studies examining whether improvements made through music therapy intervention persist once intervention has ceased. However, there is evidence that emotional intelligence continues to develop as a person ages, and that older adults have high levels of emotional intelligence (Chen, Peng, & Feng, 2016). Knowing this, it is not unreasonable to assume that improvements in emotional intelligence will remain months after musical therapy intervention has ceased.
Participants will be a convenience sample chosen from an average-sized metropolitan middle school. The total number of participants (N=150) will be randomly divided into three groups (n=50). Groups will be a control group, a music appreciation group, and a music therapy group. The reason for two music groups is to see whether music training itself can positively impact emotional development, or if therapy specifically aimed at connecting music and emotions makes a significant difference. The experiment will consist of 20 days of music intervention, with each session being conducted at the end of the school day for 45 minutes. If designated into one of the control groups, participants will participate in either group music therapy with a 1:10 therapist to student ratio, or they will participate in a music appreciation class with a 1:10 teacher to student ratio. The therapists and teachers will not know the participants’ TEIQue scores to prevent possible bias. Before being randomly assigned to a group, participants will take the adolescent short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-ASF). Participants’ scores will be filed away to protect any personally identifying information and only reviewed after the experiment is complete to compare post-intervention scores. After the 20 days, participants will retake the TEIQue-ASF for comparison. To assess whether the participants maintain any increases in emotional intelligence, the TEIQue-ASF will be readministered one- and two- months post-intervention.
Sampling Frame: The participants for this experiment will be American adolescents from an average-sized metropolitan middle school. Participants will be between 12 and 13 years old, both male and female, and from a variety of ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds. The goal is to have participants that represent the general American seventh- and eighth-grade population.
Instrument: A survey will be used to record participant’s levels of EI. The adolescent short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-ASF) will be used. The survey will be administered by the therapist or teacher depending on the group assignment. Therapists and teachers will not have access to participant’s scores so as not to influence the administration of intervention.
A significant increase between pre- and post- intervention will confirm the first hypothesis. Pre-intervention scores will be divided into the categories: low, middle, or high. Differences between pre- and post- intervention scores for each category will be compared to determine if there is support for the second hypothesis. Differences between post-intervention scores and one- and two- month post-intervention scores will be compared to determine if there is support for the third hypothesis.
Since there is a large body of research showing that music therapy positively impacts emotional development in adolescents, I expect to see a significant increase in EI between pre- and post- intervention in the therapy group. Since adolescents can recognize emotions in music, I expect to see increases in the music appreciation group as well, although they may not be significant.
When determining areas for further research, there are a few questions that come to mind. One of the main goals of this study, other than understanding how music therapy can be used to promote the development of EI, is to see if it can be realistically accomplished in large group settings. If the results from this study are significantly significant, it would also be worthwhile for researchers to see how the teacher/therapist to student ratio affects efficacy
The purpose of this research is to address the influence of music on academic writing. Some people can work while listening to music simultaneously, whereas some would consider it a distraction or something that can negatively influence their performance. Plenty of work has been done on the effect of music on various types of academic performance, including reading and writing. A study revealed that listening to jazz and classical music can increase concentration and focus, contributing to better writing quality and creativity (Bland, 2010). Additionally, Pugh (2014) provided evidence that music can directly influence the human capability to write creatively; it induces powerful imagery that may be the same among various individuals. Another study contributed to the influence of music on cognitive ability; neurobiological evidence suggested that music can enhance cognitive ability (Rickard et al., 2005). Moreover, Kumar and colleagues (2016) researched to measure the influence of music on students’ academic performance. They divided music into three categories, students who listen to 1) instrumental, 2) soft, and 3) fast music, and ask students to answer general questions. It was concluded that listening to music while studying holds a positive impact. Based on the literature review, the evidence suggests that listening to music can help increase cognitive ability to focus while studying and help increase creativity while writing an essay. However, there is a need to explore this idea among university students, undergrads, or adolescents. Thus, this research can expand the implication of the effect of music on academic performance as the effect of jazz and classical music on students’ easy writing quality.
The sample of this study is undergraduate students aged between 18-24 years, both male and female individuals. A random sampling method is used to select the students who can participate in this research enrolled in the Southern New Hampshire University. An experimenter design is used to measure the effect of music on writing performance. Students were divided into three groups, and one will listen to jazz music, one group will listen to classical, and the third group will perform without music. All participants were given the same instructions and general topics to write a short essay. The essay topic will be general and easy, considering the academic level of students and the same for all participants. There was a relevant, easy time limit (an hour) for each essay to control the influence of time pressure.
Results indicated a significant causal relationship between listening to music and increased academic performance on writing tasks. Students were asked to write an essay based on a lower difficulty level from their academic understanding to make it easy for them to write. Researchers have validated similar findings but with younger children. Bland (2010) concluded that jazz and classical music showed an inspirational effect by increasing the focus and quality of their work, including writing and reading performance. Further research on this topic can explore the impact of several variables such as variation in the difficulty of essay writing from low, moderate, and high or influence of rock, pop, and trance music during the writing task, and impact of the choice of music by participants affecting the performance. Such variation in experimental designs can help the casual relationship with the performance of university students. Moreover, a larger sample can better help generalize the research findings
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