Fermentation Rate of the S. Cerevisiae Yeast In the Presence of Mgso4

Syl Rogers Bio 210 Comparing Fermentation Rate of the S. cerevisiae Yeast in the presence of MgSO4, NaF and Sodium Pyruvate Hypothesis In the fermentation of rate of yeast, S. Cerevisiae, there will be a higher/ faster rate of ethanol production, However, using catalytic enzymes would make the rate more faster, and MgSo4 will have a higher rate of CO2 than that of NaF and Sodium pyruvate as it act as a more better catalytic enzyme than the others. Methods Preparation of Tubes A solution of yeast and glucose was prepared with different concentration of enzymes.
In All the tubes water, 0. 3M glucose and yeast was placed; with the exception of some tubes in which 0. 2M MgSo4 and 2. 5mL and 1. 4ML 0. 2 NaF was placed respectively. In another tube was placed both MgSO4 and NaF. The different solutions were prepared and placed in separate tubes for the experiment. A 45oC water bath was setup to be used for the fermentation process. Data acquiring The tubes were placed in the water bath. A stop watch was used which aids in determining the reaction time.
After Every 15 min, data was collected from all tubes by measuring the amount of CO2 being produced. This process continued for a total of 75min allowing enough time for Fermentation to occur in all tubes. Result For the first 15min, In the tube containing 8. 5mL water and 2. 5mL yeast only, the rate of the reaction was 0mm/min whiles the tube with the glucose has a rate of 233. 864mm/min. This is followed by the tube containing 2. 5mL of MgSo4 which has a rate of 165. 8573mm/min. The tube containing the MgSo4 and NaF has a rate of 69. 5mm/min which is followed by the 1. 24mL NaF tube that has a rate of 40. 63mm/min followed by 2. 5mL NaF tube which has a rate of 31. 08mm/min which was the lowest. After 30minutes, the tube containing only water and yeast has a rate of 0mm/min whiles the tube with the glucose has a rate of 208. 97mm/min. This is followed by the tube containing the MgSo4 which has a rate of 174. 1137mm/min. The tube containing the MgSo4 and NaF increased to a rate of 169. 59mm/min which is followed by the 1. 24mL NaF tube that has a rate of 57. 77mm/min followed by 2. mL NaF tube which has a rate of 35. 08mm/min which was the lowest. After an hour of reaction time, the MgSo4 and NaF tube has increased to a rate of 193. 17mm/min which is followed by the glucose tube with a rate CO2 rate of 176. 52mm/min followed by the MgSO4 Tube with a rate of 171. 73mm/min. The 1. 4mL NaF tube has increased to 61. 68mm/min followed by the 2. 4mL tube which was the lowest with a CO2 rate of 31. 31mm/min. For the final 15min of the experiment, the glucose tube has a rate of 176. 48mm/min followed by the MgSO4 and NaF tube with a rate of 169. 7mm/min. the MgSo4 tube has a rate of 157. 40mm/min which is followed by the 1. 24NaF tube with a rate CO2 rate of 57. 46mm/min followed by the 2. 5mL Tube with a rate of 29. 34mm/min which was the lowest CO2 production rate. Fig 1: Rate of CO2 production in the fermentation of Glucose by S. cereviae Discussion: The fermentation of glucose by S. cerevisiae, which yields equal molar amounts of carbon dioxide and ethanol, showed higher production levels of carbon dioxideunder controlled conditions than any other implying the same for production of ethanol.

Fermentation affected by a magnesium sulfate solution ranked second in carbon dioxideproduction while sodium fluoride yielded the least amount of carbon dioxide. These results suggest that magnesium has a positive influence on the production rate of carbon dioxide during the fermentation process and that the control contained an amount of magnesium that was neutralized by the presence of the fluoride anion. Though mean production was lower for the magnesium sulfate solution than the ontrol, a few specific results overlapped suggesting the addition of magnesium sulfate had no affect for those instances. A lower mean value for the magnesium sulfate solution suggests either that the fermentation process was supersaturated by magnesium or that the sulfate anion adversely affected the production of carbon dioxide. Further experimentation should be performed to determine the affects of magnesium sulfate in comparison to other magnesium and non-magnesium containing salts such as calcium sulfate or magnesium chloride to determine which ion has the greatest affect.
Unknown variables such as the age of the S. cerevisiae samples may have affected the outcome of this experiment. Verification of S. cerevisiae batch age would allow for additional experiments to determine whether magnesium supplementation affects yeast of a certain age differently than that of another. Additionally, the experimental test tube/vial container allowed for some of each solution to be pushed out of the experimental test tube as the level of carbon dioxide increased.
Further experimentation should utilize a better method of measuring the production of the entire original solution, not a fraction of the solution as a function of time. An alternative would be to attach a balloon to the tip of the solution-filled test tube, measure the diameter of the balloon, let an hour elapse and then measure the diameter again to determine carbon dioxide gas production. Decreased carbon dioxide production levels for S. erevisiae in the presence of a sodium fluoride solution suggest that an absence of available magnesium during fermentation results in an inefficient fermentation process; some level of magnesium is required in order for the process of fermentation to operate at maximum efficiency. Additional magnesium does not guarantee a faster or more efficient means of fermentation/ethanol production and can have an adverse affect on the fermentation process.

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