4-1 Discussion: When to Use a 360-Degree AppraisalDiscussion TopicTask: Reply to this topic Starts Nov 14, 2020 11:59 PMWhile 360-degree appraisals have many advantages, they are not for every employer or every type of employee.Read Sections 8.2c Who Should Appraise an Employee’s Performance? and 8.2d Putting It All Together: 360-Degree Evaluations in your textbook.For your initial post, imagine you are an HR manager for a company that has a large call center. The call center manager wants your help initiating a 360-degree appraisal for his call center representatives. In your initial post, discuss whether you would encourage or discourage this and why. Describe what conditions would need to be in place in order for a 360-degree appraisal process to be effective with the call center staff.Include at least one citation and reference in your initial post and respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts.Refer to the Discussion Rubric for directions on completing these discussions.Below is the piece to read.8.2cWho Should Appraise an Employee’s Performance?Just as there are multiple standards by which to evaluate performance, there are also multiple people who can evaluate an employee’s performance. Given the complexity of today’s jobs, it is often unrealistic to presume that one person can fully observe and evaluate an employee’s performance. At IBM, employees are regularly reviewed by a broad cross-section of the company’s leaders, not just their immediate bosses. As shown in Figure 8.5, the raters can include supervisors, peers, team members, employees themselves, their subordinates, customers, vendors, and suppliers. Each may be more or less useful for the administrative and developmental purposes we discussed earlier.Figure 8.5Alternative Sources of EvaluationAlternative Sources of Appraisal© Cengage LearningManager/Supervisor EvaluationsThe manager and/or supervisor evaluation has been the traditional approach to evaluating an employee’s performance. In most instances, supervisors are in the best position to perform this function, although it may not always be possible for them to do so. Managers with many subordinates often complain that they do not have the time to fully observe the performance of each of them. These managers must then rely on performance records to evaluate an employee’s performance. If reliable and valid measures are not available, the evaluation is likely to be less than accurate as a result. (Recall our earlier discussion of criterion deficiency and criterion contamination.) In addition, research has shown that the ratings managers give employees they have known for less than one year are less reliable, which can be a drawback of relying solely on information from managers.FootnoteSelf-EvaluationsIn many firms, employees are asked to evaluate themselves on self-evaluation forms. A self-evaluation can increase an employee’s involvement in the review process and get the employee thinking about his or her strengths and weaknesses. In other words, they serve as a catalyst for discussion. The employee and his or her manager then discuss the employee’s job performance and agree on a final evaluation.It’s not uncommon for employees to present themselves in a highly favorable light in self-evaluations or believe they will have more influence over the outcome of a performance evaluation. If that expectation is not met, the employee can become frustrated. For this reason, self-evaluations are often best used for developmental purposes rather than for administrative decisions.FootnoteSubordinate EvaluationsSubordinate evaluations have been used by both large and small organizations to give managers feedback on how their subordinates view them.Footnote Subordinates are in a good position to evaluate their managers because they are in frequent contact with their superiors and occupy a unique position from which to observe many performance-related behaviors, such as their leadership ability, ability to delegate, employee supportiveness, and so on. Managers are often hesitant to be evaluated by the people they supervise, particularly when it might be used as a basis for compensation decisions. However, when the information is used for developmental purposes, managers tend to be more open to the idea. Evidence suggests that when managers heed the advice of their subordinates, their own performance can improve substantially. To avoid any problems with retaliation, subordinate evaluations should be submitted anonymously and the results of the individuals combined in a single report.FootnotePeer EvaluationsIndividuals of equal rank who work together are increasingly asked to evaluate each other using a peer evaluation With peer evaluations, coworkers complete an evaluation on the employee. The forms are then usually compiled into a single profile, which is given to the supervisor for use in the final evaluation. One advantage of peer evaluations is the belief that they furnish more accurate and valid information than evaluations by superiors. Supervisors often see employees putting their best foot forward, while those who work with their fellow employees on a regular basis may see a more realistic picture. Peers can readily identify leadership and interpersonal skills along with other strengths and weaknesses of their coworkers. For example, a superior asked to rate a patrol officer on a dimension such as “dealing with the public” might not have had much opportunity to observe it. Fellow officers, on the other hand, likely would have.For employees who have trouble confronting their coworkers about problems, the reviews provide a forum in which to address issues and resolve conflicts. They also provide an opportunity to hand out praise.Footnote However, peer evaluations alone should not be used to make administrative decisions related to salaries, bonuses, promotions, and other major decisions about an employee. They should also be kept confidential, so interpersonal rivalries or hurt feelings don’t result among coworkers. Instead of listing individual comments and ratings from an employee’s peers, the ratings should be tallied to arrive at a composite score, and the comments summarized by the worker’s supervisor.Team EvaluationsAn extension of the peer evaluation is the team evaluation. In a team setting, it may be nearly impossible to separate out an individual’s contribution. To address this issue, organizations ranging from Boeing and Texas Instruments to Jostens and Ralston Foods have used team evaluations to evaluate the performance of their teams as a whole.Footnote These companies believe that team evaluations can help break down barriers between individual employees and encourage a joint effort on their part. Frequently, the system is complemented by the use of team incentives or group variable pay. (See Chapter 10 and Chapter 16.)Customer EvaluationsCustomer evaluations are another source of performance evaluation information. External customers’ evaluations, of course, have been used for some time to appraise restaurant personnel. However, companies such as Federal Express, Best Buy, and Isuzu are among the companies that have utilized external customers as well. To provide feedback to its technicians and see how well they have performed, Sears routinely calls customers after the technicians have serviced their appliances. Other companies survey their vendors and suppliers as part of the evaluation process. By including the firm’s business partners in the performance reviews, managers hope to produce more objective evaluations, more effective employees, more satisfied customers, and better business performance.FootnoteIn contrast to external customers, internal customers include anyone inside the organization who depends on an employee’s work output. For example, managers who rely on the HR department for selecting and training employees would be candidates for conducting internal customer evaluations of employees in the department or the department as a whole. For both developmental and administrative purposes, internal customers can provide extremely useful feedback about the value added by an employee or team of employees.
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